Research Papers

Traffic Crashes, Violations, and Suspensions Among Young Drivers With ADHD

Pediatrics
(
)
Curry AE, Yerys BE, Metzger KB, Carey ME, Power TJ

Adolescent drivers with ADHD are more likely to crash, be issued traffic and moving violations, and engage in risky driving behaviors than their peers without ADHD. More research is needed to measure if and how these risky behaviors contribute to crash risk.

Driver Licensing and Motor Vehicle Crash Rates Among Young Adults with Amblyopia and Unilateral Vision Impairment

Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
(
)
Baker JM, Drews-Botsch C, Pfeiffer MR, Curry AE

Amblyopia—known as “lazy eye”—and unilateral vision impairment (UVI) are two conditions that cause reduced vision in one eye and decreased depth perception, both important in driving. This study found that young adults with these conditions were less likely to get licensed than those with no visual impairment. However, when licensed, neither of these conditions was associated with an elevated crash risk.

Longitudinal Study of Driver Licensing Rates Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism
(
)
Curry AE, Yerys BE, Huang P, Metzger KB

This study found 1 in 3 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) acquired a driver’s license, compared to 83.5% of other adolescents. Of autistic adolescents who acquired a learner's permit, nearly 90% got licensed within 2 years of receiving it. These results show that license-related decisions are primarily made before the learner permit phase of driving, rather than during the learning-to-drive process.

Young Driver Compliance With Graduated Driver Licensing Restrictions Before and After Implementation of a Decal Provision

Journal of Adolescent Health
(
)
Palumbo AJ, Pfeiffer MR, Elliott MR, Curry AE

This study found that the decline in crash rates from 2008-2012 among teen drivers following implementation of the GDL decal provision was not because of increased compliance with nighttime or passenger driving restrictions. Additional research is needed to understand how decal provisions may work to reduce young driver crashes.

Comparison of Older and Younger Novice Driver Crash Rates: Informing the Need for Extended Graduated Driver Licensing Restrictions

Accident Analysis and Prevention
(
)
Curry AE, Metzger KB, Williams AF, Tefft BC

After comparing crash rates of older and younger novice drivers, the findings support current GDL policies in NJ for 17- to 20-year-old drivers but nothing compelling to adopt additional policies for drivers licensed at age 21 to 24.  More research is needed on crash risk beyond age when licensed to help explain differences in long-term crash risk for young novice drivers.

Graduated Driver Licensing for Older Novice Drivers: Critical Analysis of the Issues

American Journal of Preventive Medicine
(
)
Curry AE, Foss RD, Williams AF

This study examined the question of whether GDL restrictions should be applied to novice drivers age 18 and older. Novice drivers, ages 18 to 20, had initial high crash rates that steeply declined over the period of early licensure. This warrants further consideration of mandatory supervised learning periods, passenger limits, and nighttime driving restrictions.

Motor Vehicle Crash Risk Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Journal of the American Medical Association Pediatrics
(
)
Curry AE, Metzger KB, Pfeiffer MR, Elliott MR, Winston FK, Power TJ

Newly licensed teens with ADHD have an estimated 36% higher crash risk than other newly licensed teens, much lower than previously reported in other scientific studies. This risk persists during their initial driving years, regardless of gender or age when licensed. More research is needed to determine how ADHD affects crash risk to develop effective programs to manage that risk. 

Estimating Young Novice Drivers' Compliance With Graduated Driver Licensing Restrictions: A Novel Approach

Traffic Injury Prevention
(
)
Curry AE

This study summarizes methodological issues surrounding studies of  compliance with Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) restrictions among young drivers with intermediate driver's licenses. The study uses a novel application of the quasi-induced exposure (QIE) technique to the measurement of GDL compliance among young drivers in New Jersey. Using the QIE method, the study estimated that 8% of drivers' trips were not in compliance with the GDL passenger restriction. 

Compliance With and Enforcement of Graduated Driver Licensing Restrictions

American Journal of Preventive Medicine
(
)
Curry AE, Pfeiffer MR, Elliott MR

After linking NJ’s statewide driver licensing and crash databases, this study found that 92% of intermediate drivers’ trips followed the passenger restriction of GDL and 97% followed the nighttime restriction of GDL. Compliance, however, was significantly lower among those living in low-income and urban areas, among male drivers, on weekends, and in summer.

Validation of the Use of Electronic Health Records for Classification of ADHD Status

Journal of Attention Disorders
(
)
Gruschow SM, Yerys BE, Power TJ, Durbin DR, Curry AE

This study is the first to estimate sensitivity and specificity of EHR-based ADHD diagnosis codes in classifying ADHD status. Findings show that the EHR-based algorithm was able to identify ADHD cases accurately and efficiently, proving that EHR-based diagnostic codes can be used by large-scale epidemiological and clinical studies with high sensitivity and specificity.